By Hugh Garner Bennett
The swift improvement of utilized Chemistry lately has led to a revolution in all branches of expertise. This development has been sped up in the course of the battle, and the British Empire has now a chance of accelerating its commercial output through the applying of this information to the uncooked fabrics to be had within the diversified elements of the realm. the topic during this sequence of handbooks can be taken care of from the chemical instead of the engineering perspective. the commercial element can also be extra well-known than that of the laboratory.
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The old arguments as to whether tanning was a chemical or a physical process have been rendered obsolete by the advent of a new set of explanations, which, though shedding light on many obscure points, have enormously increased the complexity of the problem. In vegetable tannage an emulsoid gel (pelt) is immersed in a complex emulsoid sol (tan liquor), which immersion results, not in simple reaction or change, but in a series of changes. One of these changes is adsorption. Pelt is a gel which possesses a great development of surface.
T h e p l a n t is cultivated for the purpose of extract manufacture, a n d prunings are taken in the plant's t h i r d year. They are bruised and boiled with water in the open. The infusion is strained, concentrated, and poured into cooling vessels in which it sets to a paste. '' I n the l a t t e r t h e extract remains as a paste containing 25 t o 40 per cent, of tannin. , either wrapped in cocoanut m a t t i n g or in wooden boxes. Cube gambier is made by running t h e concentrated syrup into trays 2 inches deep a n d drying in the sun.
Speaking broadly, the bacterial enzymes have their maximum activity in the old limes, and the chemical action of sulphydxate formed from the keratin cystine is also at a maximum in these liquors. The chemical action of added sulphide, and t h e simple hydrolytic action of calcium hydrate have their maximum activity in the new limes. Most observers would agree that in practice the bacteria shoulder the greater part of the work. From the 4 limeyard is taken about the only waste byeproducts of the tannery, viz.