By Judith M. Bennett
Girls brewed and bought lots of the ale under the influence of alcohol in medieval England, yet after 1350, males slowly took over the exchange. through 1600, so much brewers in London - in addition to in lots of cities and villages - have been male, now not girl. Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England investigates this transition, asking how, whilst, and why brewing ceased to be a women's exchange and have become a exchange of guys. Drawing on a wide selection of assets - similar to literary and inventive fabrics, court docket files, debts, and administrative orders - Judith Bennett vividly describes how brewsters (that is, lady brewers) slowly left the alternate. She tells a narrative of industrial development, gild formation, altering applied sciences, leading edge rules, and at last, enduring principles that associated brewsters with drunkenness and ailment. studying this example of likely dramatic switch in women's prestige, Bennett argues that it integrated major components of continuity. girls would possibly not have brewed in 1600 as frequently as that they had in 1300, yet they nonetheless labored predominantly in low-status, low-skilled, and poorly remunerated initiatives. utilizing the stories of brewsters to rewrite the background of women's paintings throughout the upward thrust of capitalism, Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England deals a telling tale of the persistence of patriarchy in a time of dramatic monetary switch.
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Extra info for Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600
1350 Amount of land held in rental Virgate Semi-virgate Number of households in rental Number of times each household brewed 3 16 15, 15, 16 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 4, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 18 Smallholding /croft 5 Cottage 5 1, 3, 5, 19, 24 0, 1, 1, 3, 4 Source: BL, Add. Ch. 24394 (rental),and manorial rolls for Stockton (as detailed in the appendix). 65 Another intriguing pattern, found by Maryanne Kowaleski in late fourteenthcentury Exeter, has linked commercial brewing by wives to their husbands' trades.
Local selling was the rule, for ale — souring quickly and enduring badly the jostling, juggling, and changes in temperature of transport by ship, horse, or cart—was a poor candidate for long-distance trade. 25 Direct marketing was also the rule. 26 Most brewers sold their ale directly to neighbors, either in domo or extra domo, that is, either for consumption in the brewer's house or for consumption off the premises. When offering ale for sale in their homes, brewers managed rudimentary alehouses where customers could drink, talk, and enjoy themselves.
1325; 2, Chedzoy (Somerset), 1329-49; 3, Cranborne (Dorset), c. 1330; 4, Norton Canon (Herefordshire), c. 1330; 5, Preston-on-Wye (Herefordshire), c. 1320; 6, Stockton (Wiltshire), 1306–44; 7, Sutton (Cambridgeshire), c. 1320; 8, Wakefield (Yorkshire), c. 1325. Source: See the appendix for information about the data collected for each of these communities. was an accessible way to add modestly to household income. As we have seen, many households—indeed, in some villages, most households—profited from brewing at least occasionally.