A History of Palestine, 634-1099 by Moshe Gil

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By Moshe Gil

This was once the 1st complete heritage of Palestine from the Muslim conquest in 634 to that of the Crusaders in 1099. it's a 1992 translation and revised model of quantity I of Palestine in the course of the First Muslim interval which used to be released in Hebrew in 1983 and provides an authoritative survey of the early mediaeval Islamic and Jewish worlds. in keeping with a magnificent array of assets together with records from the Cairo Geniza assortment, the writer examines the lives of the Jewish, Christian and Muslim groups of Palestine opposed to a heritage of the political and army occasions of the interval. particular realization is paid to the heritage of Palestinian Jews lower than Muslim rule. a necessary source for college students and experts of mediaeval Islamic and Jewish heritage, non secular experiences and for an individual attracted to the historical past of the Holy Land.

Professor Gil starts via reviewing the political and armed forces occasions in Palestine ahead of and after the Arab invasion. Later chapters discover the Abbasid, Tiiliinid, Ikhshidid and Fatimid sessions, within which time Palestine used to be a nearly perpetual battlefield for states, armies and factions. by contrast backdrop of clash and administrative adjustments, the writer portrays the typical lifetime of Palestine and its population. He appears to be like on the financial background of Palestine- its agriculture, delivery amenities, exports and platforms of taxation- in addition to the spiritual prestige ofJerusalem, the character of Islam's tolerance in the direction of Jews and Christians and the prestige, management and customs of the Christian population. particular consciousness is paid to the historical past of Palestinian Jews less than Muslim rule. Professor Gil info their topography, monetary actions and non secular lifestyles; he explores the Karaite and Samaritan groups and discusses the position of the main renowned Jewish establishment, the yeshiva.

"A heritage of Palestine, 634-1099" is predicated on a magnificent array of assets. Professor Gil has conscientiously learn the greater than 1,000 records of the Cairo Geniza assortment and those are paralleled by way of Arabic, Syriac, Latin and Greek fabric. This huge examine should be learn by way of scholars and experts of mediaeval Islamic and Jewish heritage and non secular reviews and through a person drawn to the historical past of the Holy Land.

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One can assume that this campaign was in some way connected with the defeat of the Persians, assumed to be the defenders of the Jews. The Byzantine victory was accompanied by a wave of persecution of the Jews throughout the Christian world. Both Christian and Muslim sources speak of Heraclius' edict of apostasy, intended to force all the Jews in his kingdom to convert to Christianity. This edict evidently suited the policy of centralisation and religious unity which Heraclius was resolutely trying to achieve, now that he was crowned with the laurels of victory.

In about the year 425, the Jews of the Galilee and its surroundings applied to the empress Eudocia to permit them to pray on the ruins of Solomon's temple, as Constantine had forbidden them to reside in the Jerusalem area. The author of the biography also cites the letter written by the Galilean Jews to Jews in Persia and Rome after they had received the empress' permission: To the great and elevated nation of the Jews, from the Priest and Head of Galilee, many greetings. Y e shall know that the time of the dispersion of our people is at an end, and from now onwards the day of our congregation and salvation has come, for the Roman kings have written a decree to hand over our city Jerusalem to us.

The ~altb [cross] and niiqus [the pieces of wood used as a bell by eastern Christians] and theN ea church ... ; he will turn their worship into infamy and lessen their kingdom. What Daniel al-Qiimisi meant was that the kingdom of Ishmael would abolish Christian rule over Jerusalem. 12 11 12 See Fredegarius, 153, 409; see also Mabillon, Book XI, par. 39, pp. , par. 62, on forced baptism in 627, after Dagobert submits to pressure on the part of Church circles. bar, II, 457; Goffart, Speculum, 38(1963), 237, brings the story from Fredegarius as pure legend, ignoring the Muslim sources.

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