By Linda A Cumberland; Indiana University, Bloomington
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Additional resources for A grammar of Assiniboine : a Siouan language of the Northern Plains [Montana, Saskatchewan]
Contrasts among consonants are illustrated by the following minimal pairs. 2 Intervocalic voicing Analysts differ in their judgement regarding the unaspirated stops and affricate. Some have treated them as underlyingly voiced, for example, Hollow (1970), Schudel (1997), and West (2003). Others have analyzed them as underlyingly voiceless, for example, Parks and DeMallie (1996), Farnell (1998), and DeMallie and Miller (2001). NET 18 the result of an intervocalic voicing rule, formalized as rule 1, with the voiceless allophones occurring elsewhere, primarily in clusters.
Likewise, the cluster mn, cognate with Sioux bl [b c l], is pronounced without interruption, for example, [mnúna] ‘fine’, not *[m c núna]. However, the root meaning ‘water’ usually occurs as miní when used independently but as mni- in compounds. 2), the word mnik„ápi ‘well’ (k„Á ‘dig’, -pi NOM) could not have stress on the a if the first member of the compound were miní-, in which case the expected form would be *miník„api. 6. Phonetic effects in monosyllabic clusters The stops k and t are often accompanied by slight aspiration or voicing when they are the first member of a tautosyllabic cluster.
See, for example, her “owakmba” (owákma ‘I write’) in example (14). The [b] she records can only be phonetic because tautosyllabic triconsonantal clusters are disallowed in the language. Drummond’s transcriptional conventions and glosses are preserved in the following examples, but underlining is added: (14) wa §oyapi nde en owakmba nde mak §upi book DEM in I-write REL me-give-they ‘They gave me this book I am writing in’ (Drummond 1976:23) (15) . . owic handepi . . [cf. oné ‘to look for’, wëc±á ‘them’] them-search[-they] ‘they looked for them’ (Drummond 1976:26) Examples (16)-(18) are from three different Fort Belknap speakers of the older generation, illustrating that post-occlusion commonly occurs in the speech of that generation.