By Woodruff W. Bryne + British Interlingua Society
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Extra resources for A Concise English-Interlingua Dictionary + Short Interlingua Grammar and Vocabulary
16 The problem of the lexical categories of hunger and hungry are so different, even though they express essentially the same property. Hungry differs from hunger in requiring a copula ((18a)), in being able to modify a noun directly ((18b)), in not bearing past tense morphology ((18c)), in being compatible with degree expressions ((18d)), and in being usable as a resultative secondary predicate ((18e)). (18) a b c d e Chris hungers. versus Chris ∗ (is) hungry. a hungry person versus ∗ a hunger person Chris hungered.
Bowers takes the semantics of Pred to this operator: (30) ØPred = ∪ (the function from individuals to propositional functions) Bowers’ theory is like the standard theory in that it emphasizes the similarities of predication structures across categories; it simply does so in a different way. One can do more justice to the differences among categories by combining the views, taking the standard view for verbs and the Chierchia/Bowers proposal for comparable adjectives and nouns. I claim that the basic structures for sentences like (27) are roughly as in (31) (details about the tense node and the position of the auxiliary are suppressed).
24) a b c d God exists. God loves Abraham and Sarah. God sustains the universe. The square root of four equals two. In contrast, the following examples use predicate nouns and adjectives as ephemeral as many events: (25a) is allowed to be true for at most seven minutes at a time in many bridge tournaments, and New Jersey drivers are unsettled if (25b) persists even one minute. (25) a Chris is the declarer. b The traffic light is red. 2 Initial motivations 33 noun or adjective. They would say that the examples in (24) and (25) do not contain prototypical uses of the categories in question.